January 1 – The New Netherland Company is granted a 3-year monopoly in North American trade between the 40th and 45th parallels.
Early February – Sir Thomas Roe sets out to become the first ambassador from the court of the King of England to the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, sailing in the Lyon under the command of captain Christopher Newport.
March 10 – John Ogilvie, a Catholic priest, is hanged in Glasgow, Scotland.
April 21 – The Wignacourt Aqueduct is inaugurated in Malta.
May 6 – The Peace of Tyrnau is signed between Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, and Gábor Bethlen.
June 2 – The first Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France.
June 4 – Forces under the shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu take Osaka Castle in Japan, beginning a period of peace which lasts nearly 250 years. Bands of Christian samurai support Ieyasu's enemies at the Battle of Osaka.
July – Peace of Asti between the Spanish Empire and Savoy.
October – Spánverjavígin: 31 Spanish Basque whalers are killed after conflict with people of Iceland in the Westfjords peninsula.
The Mughals under Abu Bakr launch the first offensive against Kajali, a border post of the Ahom kingdom.
Hasekura Tsunenaga visits Pope Paul V in Rome to request a trade treaty between Japan and Mexico.
December 6 – In England, John Winthrop, later governor of the future Massachusetts Bay Colony, marries his second wife (of four), Thomasine Clopton, daughter of William Clopton of Castleins, near Groton, Suffolk.
Persian hordes led by Shah-Abbas kill all the monks at the David Gareja monastery complex in Georgia, and set fire to its collection of manuscripts and works of art.
Mary Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury, is released from the Tower of London in recognition of her role in helping to discover the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury.
The Somers Isles Company is founded to administer Bermuda.
John Browne is created first King's Gunfounder.
Austrian merchants receive economic privileges in the Ottoman Empire.
The Perse School in Cambridge, England, is founded by Dr Stephen Perse.
Wilson's School in Wallington, England, is founded by Royal Charter.
The Grolsch Brewery is founded in Groenlo, Netherlands.
Konoike Shinroku opens an office in Osaka and begins shipping tax-rice from western Japan to Osaka.
Johannes Kepler publishes Dissertatio cum Nuncio Sidereo in response to Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's moons.
Manuel Dias (Yang MaNuo), a Portuguese jesuit missionary introduces for the first time in China the telescope in his book Tian Wen Lüe (Explicatio Sphaerae Coelestis).
The second volume of Miguel Cervantes' Don Quixote ("El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha") is published, and is as successful as the first. Don Quixote eventually becomes the only truly famous work its author ever wrote.
January 6 – Richard Waldron, Colonial settler, acting President of New Hampshire (d. 1689)
January 10 – Sir John Robinson, 1st Baronet, of London, English politician (d. 1680)
January 13 – Henrik Bjelke, Norwegian military officer (d. 1683)
January 14 – John Biddle, English theologian (d. 1662)
January 20 – Karmabai, Jat known as Bhakt Shiromani Karmabai (d. 1634)
January 25 – Govert Flinck, Dutch painter (d. 1660)
January 27 – Nicolas Fouquet, Superintendent of Finances in France (d. 1680)
January 30 – Thomas Rolfe, Virginia colonist and son of Pocahontas (d. 1675)
February 18 – Maria Caterina Farnese, Duchess of Modena and Reggio (d. 1646)
February 27 – Isaac Thornton, English politician (d. 1669)
March 10 – Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve, illegitimate son of King Christian IV of Denmark (d. 1645)
March 11 – Johann Weikhard of Auersperg, Austrian prime minister (d. 1677)
March 13 – Pope Innocent XII (d. 1700)
March 20 – Dara Shikoh, Indian prince (d. 1659)
March 22 – Katherine Jones, Viscountess Ranelagh (d. 1691)
March 28 – Pieter de Groot, Dutch diplomat (d. 1678)
April 9 – John Wright (Ipswich MP), British politician (d. 1683)
April 16 – Edward Rawson (politician) (d. 1693)
April 17 – Jacques Goulet, early pioneer in New France (now Québec) (d. 1688)
April 24 – Klas Hansson Bjelkenstjerna, Swedish naval officer and civil servant (d. 1662)
May 30 – Richard Neville (soldier), English soldier and MP (d. 1676)
June 3 – Giles Strangways, English politician (d. 1675)
June 15 – Samuel Sandys (Royalist), English politician (d. 1685)
June 16 – Francisco Cuervo y Valdés, Spanish colonial governor (d. 1714)
June 20 (or July 31) – Salvator Rosa, Italian painter (d. 1673)
July 1 – Samuel Hales, founding settler of Hartford (d. 1693)
July 9 – Sir Thomas Sclater, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1684)
July 22 – Marguerite of Lorraine, princess of Lorraine, duchess of Orléans (d. 1672)
July 28 – Charles de Noyelle, Jesuit Superior General (d. 1686)
August 13 – John Sherburne, American colonial (d. 1693)
August 15 – Marie de Lorraine, Duchess of Guise (d. 1688)
August 18 – John Sadler (town clerk), British town clerk (d. 1674)
September 3 – Mary Bradbury, Salem Witch (d. 1700)
September 7 – Colonel John Birch, English soldier (d. 1691)
September 12 – Landgravine Sophie of Hesse-Kassel, Countess of Schaumburg-Lippe (d. 1670)
September 12 – William Turner (Lord Mayor), English Sheriff (d. 1693)
September 16 – Heinrich Bach, German organist and composer (d. 1692)
September 17 – Nicholas Pedley, English politician (d. 1685)
September 20 – Giambattista Spinola, Italo-Spanish Roman Catholic cardinal (d. 1704)
October 1 – Hugh Bethell (died 1679), Member of Parliament and High Sheriff (d. 1679)
October 8 – Erdmann August of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (d. 1651)
October 27 – Christian I, Duke of Saxe-Merseburg, member of the House of Wettin (d. 1691)
November 5 – Ibrahim I, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1648)
November 12 – Richard Baxter, English clergyman (d. 1691)
November 19 – Richard Norton of Southwick Park, English politician (d. 1691)
November 24 – Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine (d. 1690)
January 31 – Claudio Aquaviva, Italian Jesuit (b. 1543)
February 4 – Dom Justo Takayama, Japanese warlord (b. 1552)
March 4 – Hans von Aachen, German painter (b. 1552)
March 27 – Marguerite de Valois, queen of Henry IV of France (b. 1553)
May 4 – Adriaan van Roomen, Flemish mathematician (b. 1561)
May 7 – Sanada Yukimura, legendary Japanese samurai (b. 1567)
June 23 – Mashita Nagamori, minor Japanese daimyo (b. 1545)
September 1 – Étienne Pasquier, French lawyer and man of letters (b. 1529)
September 27 – Arbella Stuart, English noblewoman and woman of letters (b. 1575)
Late November – Edward Wright, English mathematician and cartographer (b. 1561)
November 24 – Sethus Calvisius, German calendar reformer (b. 1556)