February 27 – Sunspots are observed by telescope by Frisian astronomers Johannes Fabricius and David Fabricius and Johannes publishes the results of these observations in De Maculis in Sole observatis in Wittenberg later this year. Such early discoveries are overlooked however, and the first sighting is claimed a few months later by Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner.
March 4 – George Abbot is enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury.
March 9 – Yemana Kristos, brother of Emperor of Ethiopia Susenyos I, ends the rebellion of Melka Sedeq in the Battle of Segaba in Begemder.
April 4 – Denmark declares war on Sweden, then captures Kalmar.
April 28 – The Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario is established in Manila, the Philippines (later renamed Colegio de Santo Tomas, now known as the University of Santo Tomas).
May 2 – The Authorized King James Version of the Bible is published for the first time in London, England, printed by Robert Barker.
May 9 – In Japan, sixteen-year-old Emperor Go-Mizunoo succeeds Emperor Go-Yōzei.
June 22 – The English explorer and sea captain Henry Hudson, his teenage son John, and six crewmen are set adrift in or near Hudson Bay after a mutiny on his ship Discovery. They are never seen again.
August 2 – Jamestown: Deputy Governor Sir Thomas Gates returns to Virginia with 280 people, provisions and cattle on 6 ships and assumes control, ruling that the fort must be strengthened.
September – Jamestown: Thomas Dale, with 350 men, starts building Henricus.
October 30 – Gustavus Adolphus succeeds his father Charles IX as King of Sweden.
November 1 – At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeare's last solo play The Tempest is performed, perhaps for the first time.
Uprising in Moscow against occupying Polish forces, resulting in a major fire.
Jamestown: John Rolfe imports tobacco seeds from the island of Trinidad (Nicotiana tabacum); the native tobacco is Nicotiana rustica.
Thomas Dale founds the city of Henricus on the James River, a few miles south of present day Richmond, Virginia.
Construction begins on Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan, Persia.
Thomas Sutton founds Charterhouse School on the site of the old Carthusian monastery in Charterhouse Square, Smithfield, London.
January 5 – Tsarevich Ivan Dmitriyevich, son of False Dmitry II (d. 1614)
January 28 – Johannes Hevelius, astronomer (d. 1687)
May 16 – Pope Innocent XI (d. 1689)
July 16 – Archduchess Cecilia Renata of Austria, Queen of Poland (d. 1644)
September 1 – William Cartwright, dramatist (d. 1643)
September 8 – Johann Friedrich Gronovius, German classical scholar (d. 1671)
September 11 – Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, Marshal of France (d. 1675)
November 1 – François-Marie, comte de Broglie, Italian-born French commander (d. 1656)
Karl Eusebius, Prince of Liechtenstein (d. 1684)
Diego Quispe Tito, Peruvian painter (d. 1681)
probable – Charles de Batz-Castelmore d'Artagnan, French count and musketeer, on which the fictional D'Artagnan from the novel The Three Musketeers is based (d. 1673)
February 12 – Jodocus Hondius, cartographer (b. 1563)
February 26 – Antonio Possevino, papal legate to Russia
March 5 – Shimazu Yoshihisa, Japanese warlord and samurai (b. 1533)
June (last seen) – Henry Hudson, explorer
June 8 – Jean Bertaut, French poet (b. 1552)
July 26 – Horio Yoshiharu, Japanese warlord (b. 1542)
August – Antoni Clarassó i Terès, Spanish priest
August 2 – Katō Kiyomasa, Japanese warlord and samurai (b. 1562)
August 27 – Tomás Luis de Victoria, Spanish composer (b. c. 1548)
October 3 – Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne, French military leader (b. 1554)
October 30 – King Charles IX of Sweden (b. 1550)